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The American Medical Association (AMA) has published a set of privacy principles for non-HIPAA-covered entities to help ensure that the privacy of consumers is protected, even when healthcare data is provided to data holders that do not need to comply with HIPAA Rules.
HIPAA only applies to healthcare providers, health plans, healthcare clearinghouses (covered entities) and business associates of those entities. HIPAA requires those entities to protect the privacy of patients and implement security controls to keep their healthcare data private and confidential. When the same healthcare data is shared with an entity that is not covered by HIPAA, those protections do not need to be in place. HIPAA also gives patients rights over their health data, but those rights do not apply to health data sent to a non-HIPAA-covered entity.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONS) have recently published rules to prevent information blocking and improve sharing of healthcare data. One requirement is to allow patients to have their health data sent to a third-party app of their choice. In most cases, the developers of those apps are not HIPAA-covered entities.
Discussions are taking place in Congress about new federal regulations covering healthcare data provided to non-HIPAA-covered entities and several legislative acts have been proposed, although none have so far attracted sufficient support.
The new privacy principles developed by the AMA are intended to give consumers greater control over their healthcare data when it is held by a non-HIPAA-covered entity and to inform discussions about new legislation to better protect privacy when health data is shared with third-parties outside of the healthcare system.
In a recent blog post announcing the new privacy principles, the AMA explained that patients’ confidence in the privacy and security of their data has been shaken. The business models of many tech companies involve gathering extensive information about consumers personal lives, in many cases with a lack of transparency and consent. There have been many scandals over personal data which have made consumers nervous about sharing data not only with tech companies but also with their healthcare providers.
Consumers are now less willing to provide health information to physicians, as they are worried that the information may not remain private and confidential and may even be shared with tech companies. The AMA is particularly concerned that the recent CMS and ONC rule changes will make it even more likely that patients will feel that they should withhold certain healthcare data from their healthcare providers.
The privacy principles will help to ensure that guardrails are placed around healthcare data and patients are given meaningful control over their healthcare data and will be told, in clear and easy to understand language, exactly how their health data will be used and with whom that information will be shared. The privacy principles also cover data that has not historically been considered to be personally identifiable such as IP addresses and mobile phone advertising identifiers but could in fact be used to identify an individual.
The privacy principles detail rights that individuals should have over their healthcare data and protections that need to be implemented to protect against healthcare data being used to discriminate against individuals. The AMA is also attempting to shift the responsibility for privacy from individuals to data holders, who must be responsible stewards of any data provided to them. In cases where privacy is violated, the AMA is calling for tough penalties to be imposed and for there to be robust enforcement of any new national privacy legislation. Robust enforcement will help to maintain trust in digital health tools, including smartphone apps that can be used to access healthcare data.
The privacy principles establish 12 rights that individuals should have over their health data, equity factors that must be taken into account in any privacy laws, and the responsibilities of data holders to protect the privacy of consumers. Also included are a set of requirements for enforcement of new privacy regulations covering health data.
“The AMA privacy principles set a framework for national protections that provide patients with meaningful control and transparency over the access and use of their data,” said AMA President Patrice A. Harris, M.D., M.A. “Preserving patient trust is critical if digital health technologies are to facilitate an era of more accessible, coordinated, and personalized care.
You can view the AMA’s privacy principles on this link.