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Since the Department of Health and Human Services implemented the requirements of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 in the 2013 Omnibus Final Rule, business associates of HIPAA covered entities can be directly fined for violations of HIPAA Rules.
On May 24, 2019, to clear up confusion about business associate liability for HIPAA violations, the HHS’ Office for Civil Rights clarified exactly what HIPAA violations could result in a financial penalty for a business associate.
Business associates of HIPAA Covered entities can only be held directly liable for the requirements and prohibitions of the HIPAA Rules detailed below. OCR does not have the authority to issue financial penalties to business associates for any aspect of HIPAA noncompliance not detailed on the list.
You can download the HHS Fact Sheet on direct liability of business associates on this link.
Penalties for HIPAA Violations by Business Associates
The HITECH Act called for an increase in financial penalties for noncompliance with HIPAA Rules. In 2009, the HHS determined that the language of the HITECH Act called for a maximum financial penalty of $1.5 million for violations of an identical provision in a single year. That maximum penalty amount was applied across the four penalty tiers, regardless of the level of culpability.
A re-examination of the text of the HITECH Act in 2019 saw the HHS interpret the penalty requirements differently. The $1.5 million maximum penalty was kept for the highest penalty tier, but each of the other penalty tiers had the maximum possible fine reduced to reflect the level of culpability.
Subject to further rulemaking, the HHS will be using the penalty structure detailed in the infographic below.