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The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has proposed a new rule that loosens restrictions on substance use disorder (SUD) treatment records, aligning Part 2 regulations more closely with HIPAA.
The new rule, proposed on August 22, is the first element of the HHS’s Regulatory Sprint to Coordinated Care initiative, which will also see changes made to HIPAA, the Anti-Kickback Statute, and Stark Law.
SUD treatment records are covered by Confidentiality of Substance Use Disorder Patient Records regulations – 42 CFR Part 2 (Part 2). Part 2 pre-dates HIPAA by two decades and was introduced at a time when there were no broader privacy and security standards for health data. Part 2 regulations were required to protect the privacy of patients by severely restricting the allowable uses and disclosures of SUD treatment records. When Part 2 was introduced, there was a stigma associated with SUD and without privacy protections, many individuals suffering from the disorder may have avoided seeking treatment.
Since 1975, further privacy and security laws have been introduced. The HIPAA Security Rule requires all HIPAA-covered entities to implement safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of electronic protected health information (ePHI) and the HIPAA Privacy Rule restricts uses and disclosures of that information. However, Part 2 requires additional protections for SUD records than those for PHI and ePHI.
It is important to protect the privacy of patients and ensure that SUD information is safeguarded against unauthorized access as the information could be misused, but it is also essential for SUD treatment information to be made available to healthcare providers to better support care coordination.
The proposed rule does not change the privacy framework of Part 2, it just eases restrictions on SUD treatment records and removes some of the complexity of Part 2 regulations. While there is closer alignment with HIPAA, the proposed changes fall short of full harmonization with HIPAA Rules.
One on the most important changes concerns the separation of SUD treatment records from an individual’s medical record. The proposed rule would allow a healthcare provider to record SUD information in that individual’s medical record, provided the SUD information was willingly given by the patient. SUD treatment records created by federally assisted substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs still need to be segregated.
The language of Part 2 has been changed to clarify that, with written consent, SUD records can be shared for payment and healthcare operations. Another clarification has been made on procedures during emergency situations, when additional protections for SUD records are suspended.
Under the proposed rule, providers who do not provide opioid treatments would be permitted to access a central registry of patients who have enrolled in treatment programs. Enrollment in an opioid treatment program would involve consent to have treatment information shared with the central registry. This update is intended to help prevent accidental overdoses. Opioid treatment programs will be permitted to sign up with a state prescription drug monitoring program and report on the Schedule II to V drugs that have been dispensed or prescribed.
Changes have also been proposed that make it easier for patients to share their SUD records with non-medical entities such as the Social Security Administration. Currently, a patient would need to provide the name of a person within a non-medical entity who is authorized to receive their records. Under the proposed rule, a patient could give consent to share the records with the entity as a whole.
Business associates that have been provided with SUD records for research purposes will be permitted to disclose that information to entities not covered by HIPAA for similar purposes.
Part 2 requires providers to sanitize devices containing SUD treatment records. Under the proposed rule, the information would only need to be deleted as sanitization typically involves the destruction of the device.
A restriction has been removed that prevented the courts from disclosing substance use records as part of an investigation into a serious crime that was not believed to have been committed by the patient. The time that undercover agents can stay in a Part 2 program has also been extended from 6 months to one year.
There have been calls from many healthcare associations and healthcare provider groups calling for Part 2 regulations to be aligned with HIPAA. Such a change would require approval on Capitol Hill. Recently, the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) called for leaders in the House and Senate to support changes to Part 2, and support is required. As HHS Secretary Alex Azar explained in a press meeting on Thursday, the HHS can only propose changes. In order to align Part 2 with HIPAA, House and Senate approval is required. Secretary Azar has expressed support for such changes.
“We do believe the proposed changes are very common sense, responsive changes to concerns by both patients and providers,” said Azar. While important changes have been made, many will feel the HHS has not done enough. Azar accepts that the proposed rule will not satisfy all calls for Part 2 reform, “We believe we’re going as far as we can.”