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A Kaseya KSA supply chain attack has affected dozens of its managed service provider (MSP) clients and saw REvil ransomware pushed out to MSPs and their customers. Kaseya is an American software company that develops software for managing networks, systems, and information technology infrastructure. The software is used to provide services to more than 40,000 organizations worldwide.
The REvil ransomware gang gained access to Kaseya’s systems, compromised the Kaseya’s VSA remote monitoring and management tool, and used the software update feature to install ransomware. The Kaseya VSA tool is used by MSPs to monitor and manage their infrastructure.
It is not clear when the ransomware gang gained access to Kaseya’s systems, but ransomware was pushed out to customers when the software updated on Friday July 2. The attack was timed to coincide with the July 4th holiday weekend in the United States, when staffing levels were much lower and there was less chance of the attack being detected and blocked before the ransomware payload was deployed.
Fast Response Limited Extent of the Attack
The fast response of Kaseya limited the extent of the attack. Over the weekend, Kaseya’s chief executive, Fred Voccola, said the software update was pushed out to around 40 customers and only affected on-premises customers who were running their own data centers and that its cloud-based services were not affected. The number of affected customers is now thought to be closer to 60.
Many of the victims were MSPs. In addition to their systems being encrypted, ransomware code was pushed out to their clients. More than 1,000 MSP clients are known to have been affected and had REvil ransomware installed. Sophos has reported that it is aware of 70 MSPs that have been affected, along with around 350 companies that use their services.
Kaseya has been issuing regular updates since the attack. In a Sunday morning update, Kaseya said there had been no further compromises since the Saturday evening report which suggests the measures implemented following the discovery of the attack have been successful. While no further ransomware attacks are believed to be occurring, the victim count will undoubtedly grow over the coming days. Voccola estimates the total number of victims as likely being in the low thousands, with the majority of those victims being small businesses such as “dental practices, architecture firms, plastic surgery centers, libraries, things like that.” – the types of businesses that rely on the services of MSPs for managing their IT needs.
When the attack was detected, Kaseya shut down its hosted and SaaS VSA servers and told all customers to switch off their own VSA servers while the attack was mitigated. Customers have been told to keep the servers switched off until further notice. Kaseya is working closely with CISA, the FBI, and cybersecurity forensics firms to investigate the incident and to determine the extent of the attack.
“Our security, support R&D, communications, and customer teams continue to work around the clock in all geographies through the weekend to resolve the issue and restore our customers to service,” said Kaseya in a July 4, 2021, statement about the attack. “We are in the process of formulating a staged return to service of our SaaS server farms with restricted functionality and a higher security posture (estimated in the next 24–48 hours but that is subject to change) on a geographic basis. More details on both the limitations, security posture changes, and time frame will be in the next communique later today.”
Supply chain attacks such as this can have a huge impact globally. Attackers compromise one company, then gain access to the networks of thousands of others, as was the case with the SolarWinds Orion supply chain attack in 2020. In that attack, malware was distributed through the software update mechanism which gave the attackers access to the systems of around 18,000 companies that received the update.
Kaseya Was Developing Patches for the Exploited Vulnerabilities
The REvil ransomware gang gained access to Kaseya’s systems by exploiting recently discovered vulnerabilities that had been reported to Kaseya by the Dutch Institute for Vulnerability Disclosure (DIVD). Those vulnerabilities had not been publicly disclosed and Kaseya was in the process of developing patches to correct the vulnerabilities when the REvil gang struck.
“Unfortunately, we were beaten by REvil in the final sprint, as they could exploit the vulnerabilities before customers could even patch,” said Victor Gevers, chairman of DIVD. Kaseya said patches are being developed to correct the flaws and will be released as soon as possible.
“The level of sophistication here was extraordinary,” said Voccola. The cyberattack is being investigated by the cybersecurity firm Mandiant. Voccola said that when the investigation is completed it will likely show that it was not only vulnerabilities in Kaseya code that were exploited but also vulnerabilities in third-party software.
One of the Largest Ransomware Attacks to Date
The REvil gang is believed to operate out of Eastern Europe or Russia and is one of the most prolific ransomware-as-a-service operations. Recent attacks conducted by the gang include JBS Foods, computer giant Acer, Pan-Asian retail giant Dairy Farm, UK clothing company French Connection (FCUK), French pharmaceutical company Pierre Fabre, and Brazilian healthcare company Grupo Fleury to name but a few. The latest attack is one of the largest ransomware attacks ever seen.
The gang is known to exfiltrate data prior to file encryption and demands payment of a ransom for the keys to decrypt encrypted files and to prevent the exposure or sale of data stolen in the attack. It is currently unclear if these attacks involved data theft.
Businesses and organizations affected by the latest attack have been issued with ransom demands ranging from $50,000 to $5 million according to Sophos malware analyst Mark Loman and Emsisoft CTO Fabian Wosar. The REvil gang has asked for a payment of $70 million to supply a universal decryptor that will unlock all systems that have been encrypted in the attack.
“On Friday (02.07.2021) we launched an attack on MSP providers. More than a million systems were infected. If anyone wants to negotiate about universal decryptor – our price is 70,000,000$ in BTC and we will publish publicly decryptor that decrypts files of all victims, so everyone will be able to recover from attack in less than an hour,” wrote the gang on its data leak site.
“We have been advised by our outside experts, that customers who experienced ransomware and receive a communication from the attackers should not click on any links - they may be weaponized,” said Kaseya.
President Biden Orders Federal Investigation
After learning of the attack, U.S. President Joe Biden ordered federal intelligence agencies to investigate the incident, stating on Saturday that it was unclear who was responsible for the attack. President Biden spoke with Vladamir Putin at the June 16 Geneva summit and urged him to crack down on cybercriminal gangs operating out of Russia and warned of consequences should the ransomware attacks continue. “The initial thinking was it was not the Russian government but we’re not sure yet,” President Biden told reporters on a Saturday visit to Michigan. He also confirmed the U.S. would respond if it is determined Russia was to blame for the attack.
CISA Issues Guidance for MSPs and MSP Customers Affected by the Kaseya VSA Supply Chain Attack
Kaseya issued a Compromise Detection Tool on July 3, 2021, which was rolled out to around 900 customers. The tool can be used to quickly determine if a customer’s VSA server has been compromised in the attack. The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency is urging all Kaseya MSP customers to download and run the Compromise Detection Tool as soon as possible.
Kaseya MSP customers have also been advised to enable and enforce multi-factor authentication on every single account and, as far as is possible, to enable and enforce MFA for customer-facing services.
CISA also says MSPs should “implement allowlisting to limit communication with remote monitoring and management (RMM) capabilities to known IP address pairs, and/or place administrative interfaces of RMM behind a virtual private network (VPN) or a firewall on a dedicated administrative network.”
MSP customers affected by the attack have been advised to implement cybersecurity best practices, especially MSP customers who do not currently have their RMM service running due to the Kaseya attack. CISA recommends the following measures:
- Ensure backups are up to date and stored in an easily retrievable location that is air-gapped from the organizational network;
- Revert to a manual patch management process that follows vendor remediation guidance, including the installation of new patches as soon as they become available;
- Multi-factor authentication; and
- Principle of least privilege on key network resources admin accounts.
Update: Kaseya Obtains Universal Ransomware Decryptor
Kaseya obtained a master decryptor for the ransomware on July 21, 2021 “from a trusted third party.” The decryptor was tested and found to be 100% effective and can be used by all customers and downstream businesses to recover their encrypted files free of charge. Kaseya has been working with cybersecurity firm Emsisoft to help customers recover their files using the master key.
The hackers behind the attack initially issued a $70 million ransom demand for the master key, with the price quickly reduced to $50 million. Kaseya said it obtained the master decryptor from a third-party, but at the time neither confirmed nor denied whether the ransom was paid. On July 26, 2021, Kaseya issued a statement confirming that the ransom had not in fact been paid for the decryptor, either directly or indirectly through a third party.
“Recent reports have suggested that our continued silence on whether Kaseya paid the ransom may encourage additional ransomware attacks, but nothing could be further from our goal. “Kaseya decided after consultation with experts to not negotiate with the criminals who perpetrated this attack, and we have not wavered from that commitment,” said Kaseya in a statement. “We continue to provide the decryptor to customers that request it, and we encourage all our customers whose data may have been encrypted during the attack to reach out to your contacts at Kaseya. We are confirming in no uncertain terms that Kaseya did not pay a ransom – either directly or indirectly through a third party – to obtain the decryptor,”