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Ransomware, malware and unaddressed software vulnerabilities threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of PHI, although healthcare organizations should take steps to deal with the threat from within. This year has seen numerous cases of employees snooping and accessing medical records without authorization.
The HIPAA Security Rule 45 CFR §164.312(b) requires covered entities to “Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information,” while 45 CFR §164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) requires covered entities to “Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.”
Logs create an audit trail that can be followed in the event of a data breach or privacy incident. Those logs can be checked to discover which records have been accessed without authorization.
If those logs are monitored continuously, privacy breaches can be identified quickly and action taken to limit harm. However, recent incidents have shown that while access logs are kept, they are not being regularly checked. There have been numerous recent examples of employees who have improperly accessed patients’ medical records over a period of several years.
A few days ago, Beacon Health announced an employee had been discovered to have improperly accessed the medical records of 1,200 patients without any legitimate work reason for doing so. That employee had been snooping on medical records for three years.
In March, Chadron Community Hospital and Health Services in Nevada discovered an employee had accessed the medical records of 700 patients over a period of five years and St. Charles Health System in central Oregon discovered an employee had accessed medical records without authorization over a 27 month period.
Also in March, Trios Health discovered an employee had improperly accessed the medical records of 570 patients. The improper access occurred over a period of 41 months.
Rapid detection of internal privacy breaches is essential. Even when snooping is discovered relatively quickly, the privacy of many thousands of patients may have already been violated. In January, Covenant HealthCare notified 6,197 patients of a privacy breach after an employee was discovered to have improperly accessed medical records over a period of 9 months, while a Berkeley Medical Center employee accessed the ePHI of 7,400 patients over a period of 10 months.
Healthcare organizations may not feel it is appropriate to restrict access to patients’ PHI, but a system can be implemented that will alert staff to improper access promptly. Software solutions can be used to detect improper access and alert appropriate members of staff in near real-time. If such systems are not implemented, regular audits of ePHI access logs should be conducted. Regular checks of ePHI access logs will allow organizations to prevent large-scale breaches, reduce legal liability and reduce the harm caused by rogue employees.