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A researcher at Vanderbilt University has conducted a study that suggests mortality rates at hospitals increase following a data breach as a result of a drop in the standard of care. The researcher estimates healthcare data breaches may cause as many as 2,100 deaths a year in the United States.
The study was conducted by Owen Graduate School of Management researcher, Dr. Sung Choi. The findings of the study were presented at a recent cyberrisk quantification conference at Philadelphia’s Drexel University LeBow College of Business.
Cyberattacks can have a direct impact on patient care, which has been clearly highlighted on numerous occasions over the past 12 months. Ransomware and wiper malware attacks have crippled information systems and have forced healthcare providers to cancel appointments, while the lack of access to patient health records can cause treatment delays. Notable attacks that caused major disruption were the NotPetya wiper and WannaCry ransomware attacks last year, with the latter causing major problems for the National Health Service in the UK.
Choi explained that data breaches can be a distraction for physicians and the after affects of breaches can last for years. HIPAA covered entities face investigations and litigation which Choi suggests could result in disruption to medical services and delays in providing treatment. The cost of mitigating attacks, including purchasing additional security solutions and dealing with the fallout from data breaches can see resources diverted away from patient care.
For the study, Choi compared mortality rates at hospitals before and immediately after a data breach had occurred. One of the metrics used to assess a potential fall in the quality of care was the percentage of heart attack patients who died within 30 days of admission to hospital.
Choi notes that the control group and breached hospitals had similar mortality rates, although after a data breach, the mortality rate for the control group remained the same but increased at hospitals that had experienced a breach. Choi’s analysis showed there was a 0.23% increase in the mortality rate one year following a data breach and an increase of 0.36% two years after a breach. That equates to 2,160 deaths a year.
Choi also noted that the time taken to administer electrocardiographs was longer for newly admitted patients after a hospital had experienced a data breach.
The study was presented just a few days before the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights issued a reminder to HIPAA covered entities about the need to develop contingency plans for emergencies such as cyberattacks and ransomware incidents. OCR explained that HIPAA Rules on contingency planning help to ensure a fast recovery from a natural disaster, cyberattack, or other emergency situation.
This research suggests that the development of an effective contingency plan and a rapid response to data breaches can save lives.